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Annotations Group 1 Block A2

Katie, Marie, Jessa

Quirk, Tom. "Fitzgerald and Cather: The Great Gatsby." EBSCO. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2013.



   This is a scholarly article that is talking about the relationship between Scott Fitzgerald, author of The Great Gatsby, and Willa Cather, author of My Antonia. According to the article, Scott Fitzgerald was exctied and happy to receive criticizm from Cather. He was excited because he had attempted to imitate Cather's style and her use of "point of view and about form and unity (577.)" Gatsby trys to take on a first person narrative, much like Cather's novels. The article demonstates how Fitzgerald looked to Cather for inspiration, ideas, and technique, so when she responded in a letter criticizing his book he was excited. He had dreamed about getting feedback from Cather, someone whose opinion he obviously valued.

   From this article we also learn more about Fitzgerald himself, and how he felt about his novel. It's interesting because alot of Fitzgerald's personality can be seen in Gatsby's. Whether it's his false modesty about his book (saying he hated it when he really loved it, and thought it was a definite competitior against other authors) or his wanting to impress other authors, like Cather. We also learn more about the rhetorical elements of Gatsby like how the book had a circular timeline. The last passage of the book mirrored the first passages of the beginning of the book. You can see evidence of Cather's influnece throughout The Great Gatsby. Whether it's his artistic use of diction, or his stylistic syntax, or his use of a first person narrative, this article exposes the intentions behind many of the literary and rhetorical strategies Fitzgerald used throughout The Great Gatsby.



Aleigh, Rachel, Amanda, Jackie

Porter, Lisa. "Famous Paintings of Love." eHow: Discovering the Expert in you. Lisa Porter, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <>. Pierre-Auguste Renoir's "Dance at Bougival"

In this painting Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s “Dance at Bougival” was set in a scene at a nearby park and was of an artist named Suzanne Valadon and of a man dancing. Renoir was an artist that believed in painting daily life and the meanings of it. He was trying to capture the love between these two people. These two people were in a joyous moment in their life and Renoir was trying to capture that with this painting. The reason behind this image is to portray the love between the two people. Just like how Daisy and Gatsby fell back in love when they were reunited after being apart for over 5 years (89). But this painting also portrays the rich because of what they are wearing. The long clothes and hats and extravagant things on the women’s head were signs of wealth back in 1800’s. As Renoir is portraying them as wealthy that ties into the Great Gatsby because as the readers progress through the book we notice that Fitzgerald tries to portray the upper class and how they were in the 1920s. The audience for this painting is the people who are interested in Renoir’s work as an artist. The audience is the same for both the painting and the Great Gatsby because it is directed to the people who love their work and the upper class people were the ones that could afford Renoir’s paintings at the time.

This painting connects to the Great Gatsby because as the painting is focused around love and hopefulness, The Great Gatsby’s chapter 4 and 5 are centered on Gatsby and Daisy finally reuniting after losing each other for over 5 years (89). Gatsby’s green light was the wishing and dreaming of Daisy and how it would be like to have a family and life with Daisy. After Nick setting up the meeting the readers see that Daisy cries happy tears and Gatsby is “literally glowing” (89) because they are finally sharing their happiness and love for each other again. The painting and the Great Gatsby have another connection and that would be the portrayal of the upper class. In the painting Renoir conveys the people centered in the painting as the upper class because of what they are wearing. In the 1800s the upper class people wore color clothing and long flowing dresses for women. And the Great Gatsby is about portraying the upper class people and how they aren’t always happy and how they are mostly all superficial. For instance Daisy is unhappy in her marriage and feels lonely and abandoned but when she comes to the decision to pick the person she is in love with or the person that can offer her more material items she goes for Tom; the one that can offer her more of the image she wants.  The underlying connections in both the painting and the book is that the upper class is always portrayed as the happy and lovely people but just because they have money doesn’t mean they are happy with the life they lead.



Rachel, Aleigh, Jackie, Amanda

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. This Side of Paradise. New York: Scribner, 1920;, 1999. [March 3, 2013].


This Side of Paradise by F. Scott Fitzgerald is a book written in the early 1920's about the life of the post World War 1 "lost generation".  The story highlights the glittering, adventurous, young life of college students at Princeton.  Fitzgerald was young when he wrote this, only 23 years old.  The rhetorical situation here is full of varied syntax; there are many long, explanatory, complex sentences; dashes are used to emphasize the narrator's stream of consciousness, “There the crude, vulgar air of Western civilization first catches him—in his underwear, so to speak” (Paradise).  Fitzgerald ensures that his audience knows what the most important details about his characters are by placing them in sentences by themselves, for example, “There was a woman!” (Paradise).  One of the main arguments, at least at the beginning of the book, analyzes what the role of education is in their society.  After the war is over, this group of young people has to determine what is next for them.  This book was written by a young person, about young people, for young people.

F. Scott Fitzgerald also wrote The Great Gatsby, a book that contains themes similar to that of This Side of Paradise. Both books touch on what part education, success, and love plays in one's lifestyle and destiny.  They also both have a similar pattern and similar shifts.  Fitzgerald writes with a rhythm. Between the first two paragraphs of This Side of Paradise there is a major attitude change.  It goes from being sad, “Stephen Blaine handed down to posterity his height of just under six feet and his tendency to waver at crucial moments”, to being excited, “But Beatrice Blaine! There was a woman!” (Paradise).  This provides the audience with some relief that the book won’t be completely upsetting.  The Great Gatsby has a general change in tone towards the end of the book as well.  Everything is getting more intense; the action is just getting heated, but then Gatsby dies and that’s the end of things.  Fitzgerald cuts the mood off from anger and uprising, to sadness and loneliness.  This reveals that F. Scott Fitzgerald had a steady--yet unexpected, rhythmic style of writing that, if inspected thoroughly, can be unveiled to the audience.


Jackie, Aleigh, Rachel, Amanda

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. "City Dusk." Nassau Literary Magazine Apr. 1918: n. pag. Print.

This poem, “City Dusk” by F. Scott Fitzgerald, explores the memories of a person as they sit in the park at dusk. He is sitting in the park as the lights go down, and begins to feel sad. But he remembers a time when the place he was sitting wasn’t dark and lonely, but filled with lights, music, and people. He also remembers one specific person, a woman with blonde hair who loved to dance. Eventually the details begin to fade together into nostalgia. I’m assuming the character is a man and the person he yearns for a woman because the author (Fitzgerald) was a man. The purpose of this poem, since it was published in a magazine, was for entertainment or, for more discerning readers, enlightenment. It was a literary magazine, so the audience would have been well read, smart people. Fitzgerald was most likely trying to convey the feelings you get while you’re alone at night and the thoughts you end up having.

In The Great Gatsby there are a number of places where night is mentioned. “For a moment the last sunshine fell with romantic affection upon her glowing face; her voice compelled me forward breathlessly as I listened- then glow faded, each light deserting her with lingering regret, like children leaving a pleasant street at dusk.” (27) In this quote, Nick is admiring Daisy’s face as it glows with beauty in the sunset, but quickly grows old as the sunlight fades away. After analyzing the poem before I looked at this quote in a new way. In the book there are many references to the color yellow, and it stands for wealth and beauty. The sun casts yellow light over everything and makes it nice and pretty, but when it leaves, only the dark truth remains. This is why Daisy looked so old in the dark, and the man in the poem’s mind went to more happy memories.



Amanda, Rachel, Aleigh, Jackie


 Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Rain Before Dawn. N.p.: n.p., 1917. Poetry Archive. Web. 4 

     Mar. 2013


   This poem named Rain Before Dawn was written by F. Scott Fitzgerald in 1917. The poem has sort of a sad feeling to it;

its about death it seems.  Its purpose is to give the audience that same feeling; of sadness and fear. The author uses pathos to

accomplish this in his writing. Fitzgerald's writing is also very discriptive, which helps with the imagery in the poem. This imagery

helps create the setting for the poem, it creates the feeling of sadness. Fitzgerald also uses a lot of personification in this poem. He

says, "The dull, faint patter in the drooping hours drifts in upon my sleep and fills my hair." This personification throughout the poem

helps the audience to feel how the character in the poem feels. 

   This poem relates to The Great Gatsby in many ways. First of all, because it is written by the same author, F. Scott Fitzgerald, The

writing styles are pretty much identical. Fitzgerald's writing is always very descriptive and filled with imagery. When Fitzgerald writes,

it's like he is taking you to that certain setting and situation that he's writing about; he does this by use of personification, imagery, and

many other tools. Another similarity between the two texts is the use of pathos. In both The Great Gatsby and Rain Before Dawn, 

Fitzgerald makes you pretty much fall in love with the characters. He makes a very stong emotional bond between his audience and his

characters. In both texts you feel for the characters, you don't want anything bad to happen to them and you almost feel the sadness 

that they do. 

Annotations Group 2 Block A2

Gabby Albeck, Emily, Megan, Kasey

Hugo, Victor. Les Misérables. 1862. N.p.: Penguin Classic, 1982. Print. 

Les Misérables is a French epic written in 1862 by the controversial author, Victor Hugo. Les Mis, as by its shortened name, takes place before, during, and after the French Revolution, all in relative time around each other. The novel focuses on Jean Valjean, an escaped convict and many other unfortunate souls. Social injustice, the conflict and consequence of love, and the importance of money happen to be a few of the themes which reoccur in the novel. The Great Gatsby, written in 1925 by F. Scott Fitzgerald, deals with these exact same themes, but with different context. The Great Gatsby takes place in New York City in the roaring and bustling twenty’s, a whole different scene from the traumatic events during the French Revolution. Despite these major differences, these two novels share many similarities (the themes). The purpose of Les Mis was to convey a strong emotion towards those involved in the Revolution, the negative effects on the residents of France, and the unjust social viewpoints that arose during this turmoil. Hugo creates a point of view from every class during that time period, which creates comparisons and contrasts to such classes. For example, “Jean Valjean came from a poor peasant family in Brie. As a child he had not learned to read.” (92) to “Père Madeleine, as we have said, had made a fortune for himself, but strangely, a man of business, this did not seem his principal concern.” (156). This could be compared to Gatbsy’s rise to success. Both men came from “humble” backgrounds and built themselves up. Like in the Revolution and Roaring Twenty’s, most of the upper class had not earned their money through hard work, but rather inheritance or just the benefits of being in the high class. The theme of love is also prominent, but the types of love differ. For Valjean, his love for Cosette was for protection and security, while Gatsby’s love for Daisy was a burning desire which he had been holding for years on end.

            The purpose of comparing Les Misérables to The Great Gatsby is to create a different perspective upon the same themes which occur in both novels in numerous occasions. Although these themes are common and appear in almost every novel, the depth of which these two themes go into make the novels similar. Creating a historical connection to a novel opens your mind to make connections outside of the fictional world of the novel and into reality, where such events occurred in real time. 

Annotations Group 1 Block A3

Mallory, Courtney, Erin, Valerie

Kimaru, Linda. "The Cold of Wealth." Wamathai. N.p., 15 Aug. 2012. Web. 3 Mar.
     2013. <>.

      The purpose of,
     "The Cold of Wealth," was to illustrate what happens when we pay more
     attention to the material aspects of life than to the people in them. This
     particular blogger wished to inform their readers that it's important not
     to take people for granted. The family depicted in this short story lacked
     the characteristics of family as the author believed it should be. The father was busy with
     work, the mother cared more for the lavish lifestyle in the house than the
     people under its roof, and the children sat around watching television and
     ignoring one another. Despite the fact that they had all they could ever
     want and more, they were blind to their own lack of happiness. A fire is
     constantly burning on cold nights in the living room. However, it can't
     warm the, "cold of wealth." 
     F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote of the same message in, "The Great Gatsby."
     Daisy and Tom live in a lavish house in New York, but they aren't happy
     together. They posses everything they could ever wish for, yet they have to
     live secret lives with other people to feel fulfilled. Similar to the
     family in, "The Cold of Wealth," members of the Buchanan family do not act
     as one family unit, but as individuals who don't pay attention to one
     another. They don't even pay much attention to their child, who is cared
     for by a Nurse and mentioned twice withing the novel. Overall both pieces
     of writing depict what happens when we choose to follow the path of
     materialism rather than follow our heart.

Erin, Mallory, Courtney, Valerie

"It Didn't End Well Last Time." The New York Times 4 Apr. 2007: n. pag. Web. 4
     Mar. 2013. <

         Although the author of this editorial is not
     listed, we know that they are a credible source because they work for such
     a large and popular newspaper. The tone in this editorial is very critical
     and disapproving of the gap that has occurred between the rich and the poor.
     The author mentions a "disturbing rise" so the diction used demonstrates
     that the author is very disapproving. The audience of this text seems to be
     more toward the Democratic Americans because it contains more liberal
     ideals and talks poorly on the republican president. The purpose is to
     critique George W. Bush in his presidency because they talk about how the
     gaps between classes are widening and there is more of a struggle in the
     lower classes. This was written in 2007 when Bush was the president of the
     US and there was a large gap between the rich and the poor, as can also be
     seen in The Great Gatsby.  
        The Great Gatsby was written to take place in the 1920's. During
     this time there was a large gap between the classes of the rich and poor.
     This novel shows mainly the perspective of the wealthy. At the very
     beginning of the book Nicks dad tells him, "Just remember that all the
     people...haven't had the advantages that you've had" (1). This shows that
     the narrator of the book has led a more privileged life. There are other
     differenced in the nook such as the East Egg, where the new money resides,
     and the West Egg, where the older money resides and the residencies are
     not as nice. This realtes back to this editorial because Fitzgerald mainly
     shows the upper class in a negative light. There are many examples of lying
     and deceiving, as well as even murder. This goes along with this article
     from 2007 because the author is saying that this gap is not a positive
     thing fr society. The editorial itself also relates back to the 20's, which
     is when The Great Gatsby is set.

Annotations Group 2 Block A3

Jeff, Claire, Chloe, Simran

"Class and the American Dream." New York Times. The New York Times, 30 May 2005. Web. 10 Feb. 2013.


            The purpose of “Class and the American Dream” is to question what exactly defines the ultimate goal of American population: money, or work. The very first sentence asks the question of whether or not simply being as wealthy as can be without putting much effort into one’s life is really what the dream is, and whether or not everyone can make the jump from being in the middle class to unnaturally successful, at least by the standard of their income. Going off of this, it states that Bill Gates and Bill Clinton both came from relatively humble, low key backgrounds, and rose up to become incredibly gifted with computers and politics respectively. However, it goes on to state that most people tend to end up in a similar state as their parents. For better or worse, the hard working middle class persons rarely break through.

            F. Scott Fitzgerald uses this theme in “The Great Gatsby”. The time period that the story takes place in, the 1920’s, was a time when the rich were essentially supermen. They could do whatever they want and not have to worry about anything. The middle class, represented in the story by Nick the narrator, are much more humble, and true to themselves. Nick works hard, but doesn’t get the ludicrous amounts of money to show for it. Even after he meets Gatsby, Nick continues to want to earn things the way he always has, showing that his dream and the dreams of those that he encounters aren’t always the same.


Claire, Simran, Jeff, Chloe

“Girls Will be Girls”. The New York Times.N.p., 11 Feb. 2008. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. <>.

In this article, Orenstein discusses the relation between today’s media and how they influence gender roles, and how this alters our perception of gender. It’s intended for parents mostly, because of the way that the article talks about novels that parents would buy for their children in order to relive their glory days while reinforcing stereotypes. Even important women like Hillary Clinton and Condleeza Rice are ignored for their achievements and instead berated for the lack or excessive femininity. The article argues that we should try to become more open minded, and to just let children be children, whether they want to play with Barbie or GI Joe, no matter if they’re a boy or a girl. That as a society, we’ll be better off without placing people into little boxes and categories to suit our own agenda.

These themes are also prevalent in The Great Gatsby. Especially when one analyzes Tom and Daisy, the roles that they extol throughout the novel. This article provides knowledge as to what these gender roles are and how they can be detrimental. Tom is verbally and physically abusive to Daisy, and Daisy is the epitome of a helpless and lackadaisical (albeit rich) woman during the 1920s, and is treated as such by both Gatsby and Tom. Daisy does hardly anything for herself, not even taking care of her own child. She is concerned only with beauty and appearances. This is how Fitzgerald argues against the idea that women and men should have roles, because in the end they don’t really matter. 


Simran Khanal, Claire, Chloe, Jeff

Tannen, Mary. "Jingo Belle." New York Times, 10 Oct. 2004. Web. 03 Mar. 2013.

               Mary Tannen looks at the definition and qualifications of the American Beauty. She used modern examples to illustrate how the definitions and qualifications of the American Beauty continuously change. Tannen’s audience is the readers of the New York Times. She is looks at the new skin care and beauty line that came out in 2004 and analyzing what the American women look for in their makeup. She uses Daisy as the American Beauty of the 1920’s because of her independent thinking and the fact that she fell in love with Gatsby, who was not her husband.

               This article looks into the depth of how society views women or what are considered “good” qualities. They analyze modern examples of women and how they qualify for the part of an American Beauty, from Marilyn Monroe to Ashley Judd.  This illustrates the social arguments that Fitzgerald brings up in The Great Gatsby. For example, Tannen brings up the fact that the American Beauty is independent and always has something that they need to do. This symbolizes Jordan Baker and Daisy in The Great Gatsbybecause they are independent women and they always have things to of their own to take care of. For example, Jordan is a golfer and she is looking out for her own career, and Daisy is independent and does what she wants like falling in love with Gatsby even though she is married.


Chloe, Jeff, Simran, Claire


Seelye, Katharine Q. "What Happens to the American Dream in a Recession?" New York Times. N.p., 7 May 2009. Web. 3 Mar. 2013. 

   Seelye's article unearths a deep question that is often overlooked. Most of the time, the question is "What is the American Dream?". Here in this article, it asks whether or not the American Dream could change based on what stage of the economic cycle our country is in. The response was actually refreshing. Even in the dismal time of the worst recession since the Great Depression, almost half of the population studied answered that they felt as though they had achieved the "classic" American dream: starting with no money, working hard, and ending up rich. The American Dream is highly sought after; it provides us with this sense of stability and security. It shows people that we worked hard for success. In short, the American dream does not change in times of economic slump. It only makes Americans cling to the idea that we can turn things around for ourselves through hard work. 


   This idea of the American dream is present in The Great Gatsby, however the definition it is completely reversed. The people who were truly respected were the plutocrats living in East Egg. Those like Daisy and Tom Buchanan, the Sloanes, and Jordan Baker. They had more money than they knew how to deal with and no work to show for it. Jay Gatsby was frowned upon because he came from a poor and questionable past and he made his money through illegal means. Nick Carraway was one of the few main characters who earned a honest living, with enough money to support himself. He was the true example of the American Dream, and people still did not respect him on West or East Egg because he wasn't born into money. This book was published in the 20's, and Fitzgerald had no way of knowing that people would have a different perception of the American dream in 2009, but it is so relevant to us now. It shows the nature of the people in the 20's. They were materialistic, infallible, completely unsuspecting of the coming depression. After this period, it changed the American dream forever. 


Annotations Group 1 Block A4

Nicole, Haley W, Josh

"Class and the American Dream - New York Times." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2013. <>.

This article is describing the connection between the great Gatsby and the recession during 2005. This article analyzes how the relations between wealth and social class have not changed. In the article the success stories of Bill Gates and Bill Clinton who had success stories coming from nothing and becoming billionaires. These success stories are used to contradict that belief that the gap between the rich and middle class are closer; when in reality, the gap has just grown.  This article compares the a well known book to the social and economical issues of present day.

              The connection between this article and the Great Gatsby is that the social and economical times have not changed. In both we see that with wealth also comes social power, and taht concept has yet to change. The article aslo exposes how the connections one build help them gain wealth and social status as seen in the Great Gatsby where because of Gatsby's connections he was able to build this persona of being rich and powerful. In the book Fitzgerald also connects the middle class to Nick, the narrator, who is a humble person and not lying to others. This book is a good representation of the social classes today, but will change with the new programs to educate those he are financially unable .


Josh, Nicole, Haley W

"Scarlett O'Hara and Rhett Butler." My Dear Valentine. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 
     2013. < 

      This article summarizes and analyzes the story of Scarlett O'Hara and Rhett Butler, characters from the popular novel Gone With the Wind, which is made into the infamous movie we know today.  At the time, Scarlett is in love with a man named Ashley Wilkes, who ends up pushing Scarlett to the side and marries another woman.  Scarlett and Rhett meet at a barbecue, where Scarlett slaps Ashley because of the choice he made.  Rhett witnesses the incident and admires her behavior, and the romantic story of the two begins.  Rhett spends his time as a soldier, several of the years in prison, as he takes part in illegal trade to make a fortune.  Scarlett has a child and gets married twice, and ends up a widow both times.  A while after Scarlett's second husband dies, Rhett asks Scarlett to marry him.  After some time, she agrees to get married.  Their marriage involves many ups, downs, twists, and turns as they often fight and make accusations of each other.  Scarlett gets pregnant again and unfortunately miscarries her child.  Their four-year-old daughter dies after accidentally falling off of a horse.  Their child's death is the breaking point that makes Rhett want to get out of the marriage, even though Scarlett loves Rhett very much.  He pursues a life like he had before the war started.

       The characters, Scarlett and Rhett from Gone With the Wind are very much alike the characters Daisy and Gatsby from The Great Gatsby.  Both sets of characters meet at an early age and get back together several years later after the war.  Gatsby will do anything to get the love of his life back into his arms.  In Gone With the Wind, the roles are switched, where Scarlett pursues her love for Rhett throughout their rocky marriage.  These two stories are so much alike in many ways.  Perhaps the themes of the novel The Great Gatsby and the movie Gone With the Wind are that some people are so devoted and so willing that they will do whatever it takes to get the love of their life in their hands.  No matter how hard it is or what consequences come along, some people will stop at nothing to get what they want.

Haley, Josh, Nicole

Clark, Edwin. "Scott Fitzgerald Looks Into Middle Age." Scott Fitzgerald Looks Into Middle Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2013.


In Edwin Clark’s article, Scott Fitzgerald Looks into Middle Age, he argues that Fitzgerald has perhaps concluded his desired “series” that’s goal was to achieve “the other side of paradise.” With the Great Gatsby and with immense skill and craft became the most entertaining and steady writer of the time. This article was published in April of 1925, right after the release of Fitzgerald’s novel. He could’ve written this in order to draw publicity and praise to “The Great Gatsby.” Throughout Fitzgerald’s writing experience, he follows a certain generation. Clark writes how “The Great Gatsby,” is “the last stage of illusion in this absurd chase” (providing a sense of closure) or view into the flappers’ middle age life. This audience would be the people of the 1920’s- he was writing about a generation that was relevant at that time.

                This article aids or illuminates The Great Gatsby by highlighting its connection to the glamorous lives the people of the time lived. A significant connection made by this article is how Fitzgerald follows a generation that is currently living at the time. Previously, Fitzgerald wrote about flappers have or are trying to reach the other side of paradise. This is a unique way for a writer to approach a topic-in a sequence following a group of people still determining their future.


Annotations Group 2 Block A4

Ryan, Ellie, Veronica, Tiffany

Hughes, Langston. Let America Be America Again. 1935. Poem.


   Let America Be America Again is a poem that explains Langston Hughes point of view on the American Dream. He explains the perspective of his situation and others situations as non-successful. He does this to show the faulty in the American Dream, which has been a belief system for most people and it's what drives them to become successful. In current events, immigrants from other countries have this American dream to come to the United States and become successful. For a good many of them this is not true. However, the tone of the poem transforms into something more motivational. He continues to believe in the dream as if it will come true sometime in the future. Hughes does this for the purpose of defining the American dream as something intriguing and seducing because the idea of it will attract any and all people in the search for success and freedom.

   In the Great Gatsby, the main character, Gatsby, represents one who follows the dream that Hughes defined in his poem Let America Be America Again. The theme in both is the same. Believing in the past, or searching for it, is accurate for both Gatsby and Hughes. The American dream in the past, from Let America Be America Again, has failed as time moves on, though it is still something that is motivational for many. Gatsby has the same attitude towards his past. He wants to be with Daisy again, but in the end he does not have her, even though he still cares for her and has an idea that someday he will be with her.



Ellie, Veronica, Ryan, Tiffanie

Alfred, Lord Tennyson - Poems. PoemHunter.Com, 2004. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. <>.


        Alfred, Lord Tennyson in his poem “After-Thought” describes the loss of a person dear to him.  He defines this person as “my partner and my guide” (1).  Although not directly stated, the person Tennyson references is likely Arthur Hallam, a fellow English poet and the best friend of Tennyson.  In fact, much of Tennyson’s writing, namely In Memoriam, was influenced directly by the grief Hallam’s death caused Tennyson.  This death was the exigence for this poem in particular, making the poem an elegy.  Tennyson, however, uses the passing of his beloved friend to comment upon the nature of mortality and to argue that one lives on past his or her death; one continues to influence others’ lives.  To strengthen his argument, Tennyson uses a metaphor to compare time to a continuously flowing river.  For instance, he exclaims, “Duddon!” which directly references a river in England that the author lived near (3).  He further states, “Still glides the Stream, and shall not cease to glide” (5).  He is emphasizing that time does not stop for death.  However, Tennyson proceeds to describe how one’s “function,” or the legacy left by a person, will continue on to serve others in the future (6).  In this way, Tennyson argues that people are greater than they know because they influence others after their death. 

            Tennyson’s “After-Thought” can be applied to three individuals related to The Great Gatsby.  When viewed through Gatsby’s eyes, this poem can represent his love for Daisy that has died.  Even though Gatsby loved her when he was young, he continued to hold onto that love and let it influence him, just as Tennyson alludes to in his poem.  Even though the love was dead, it affected Gatsby.  He artificially kept it alive and used it as motivation to become wealthy.  Additionally, the poem can be perceived through Nick’s perspective relating to Gatsby’s death.  In the beginning of the novel by Fitzgerald, Nick describes Gatsby as having, “an extraordinary gift for hope, a romantic readiness such as I have never found in any other person and which it is not likely I shall ever find again” (2).  Even though Nick states that Gatsby stood for all the principles he disagreed with, Nick was still influenced by Gatsby after Gatsby’s death.  Once again, this is just as Tennyson argues in his poem.  Nick examines how Gatsby showed him the decay of decency and explosion of greed.  Finally, however, Tennyson’s poem can describe F. Scott Fitzgerald’s feelings towards the death of the American dream.  During the economic boom of the 1920s, the noble and moral dream of Americans decayed into a pursuit of money and meaningless pleasure.  What was once the “guide” for Americans now became an artificial curtain disguising the greed of their real desires.  Even though according to Fitzgerald the American dream was dead, it still continued to influence Americans’ lives.  In his novel The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald states, “So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past” (180).  This is similar to how Tennyson argues that the past events in one’s life affect the future.  Contrary to Tennyson, however, is the negative connotation Fitzgerald arouses.  Tennyson focuses on the positive influences one may have after death…the feeling that people are worth more than they realize.  Fitzgerald focuses on how people may be less than they realize after death.  This is exemplified in his argument of the extinct nobility of humans and its popular replacement with greed.  However, throughout The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald utilizes a morose mood concerned with death.  Tennyson’s poem is equally morose.  Moreover, it is never stated in “After-Thought” that death must be of a person.  As Fitzgerald argues, the death of an ideal can be even more transcending. 

Tiffanie, Ellie, Veronica, Ryan

Cline, Austin. "Morality of Rich vs. Poor in America". July 8, 2010 <>.

                This compare and contrast essay between the rich poor defines social and economic standpoint as a mere state of mind. It evokes the idea that one can have everything and have nothing, or have nothing and have everything. Morals and values define oneself, rather than one’s financial and physical attributes. This essay suggests that pride, value, and manners are worth more than all the money in the world and that income is a “bland” way to compare the rich and poor. This comparative essay makes an effort to diminish social barriers and help both classes see that the definition of being upper or lower class is ultimately about perspective. It is said that education is power; to be knowledgeable, aware, and respectful in society does not require one to be immensely rich. Cline then leads into the concept of the pursuit of happiness and proposes the thought that even those at the top of the financial chain are never content, yet those who are at the lowest of the chain are more optimistic. He also compares society to that of the Han Dynasty in China, which was from 206 BC to 220 AD. He metaphorically compares society to farmers in that in China, both the higher and lower class both worked on the same fields, as do we do currently in our economy. We too are all working together in the same game working towards reaching the American dream, yet the separation of money and class has always seemed to define us through the years. The Chinese farmers produced the same crops on the same field, yet the economic standpoint that some were fortunately born into allowed them to be better off. They lived the same life but had different lifestyles. Economic standpoint has overshadows the social worth, which is what led Austin Cline to write this comparative essay, to influence the thought that one’s economic standpoint in society is only a mindset.

This essay relates to The Great Gatsby in that social class is a major priority as well. It represents the characters in that the rich have everything, yet they are the ones who are the most unhappy and not content. Gatsby, the main character, seems to have everything yet he is still so empty due to his past and losing the love of his life because of economic standpoints. This book was written in the 1920’s which was around the time of the Great Depression, which stimulated Fitzgerald’s need to address social tension due to economic barriers and rank in society.  Gatsby represents society in the chase for the American Dream. The burning passion in his life, which is Daisy, the love from his past, was his motivation to be of the upper class. This relates back to this essay in that something pure and good should motivate you to become successful. One shouldn’t lose them self in the chase. Gatsby, unfortunately, lost himself. Love makes us blind, but money does too. The Great Gatsby relates to this essay in that economics blinds society and how  Cline endeavors to diminish social barriers and convince both social classes that social status is only a state of mind.


Veronica K. Ellie. Ryan. Tiffany. Service, Robert. "A Mediocre Man." Famous Poets and Poems. N.p., n.d. Web. 5
                         Mar. 2013. <

A Mediocre Man

The poem “A Mediocre Man,” by Robert Service describes a poor man’s perspective on the rich, I’m assuming that this man lives in a the reality of a poor individual in the poor part of a huge city or place. At first, the author identifies himself as a “mediocre man,” meaning he is one of men of moderate quality. He enlightens that he isn’t one of the “high brow pretence,” explaining that he is no one to judge, and he lives a comfortable life with care and commonsense, sensing his audience to think he is nothing like the rich, and sensing that he looks a bit down upom the rich. Ending this first stanza, he explains that as he sees the “morning paper view,” symbolizing the rich activities going on in the news, he says that they are the problems of the day. In the second stanza, Service clarifies that he himself is still fancy because he truly represents his race profoundly from the heart. He defends that he stands for everyone, not caring if others are ashamed to represent themselves, he announces he’s proud for being a mediocre man. Finally at the third stanza, he directs that to his audience they might not agree that they are as awell average, but unlike hi, he’s content with strutting of what he has to show, next Service directs his view towards the rich, saying that even if they are rich as can be, without a title, listen to his words, and thank him for his idea. In conclusion, Service directs his poems towards the people of the poor and rich to realize the fact that being poor isn’t the worst, and being rich isn’t all that, he explains that he’s proud of what he is, and though others cannot agree, they shall one day thanks him for his thoughts because later they will mostly agree to his point of view. The author’s exigence is to declare that he himself is proud of who he is, and the whole world should realize that they should be as well, and not let identifications such as being rich or poor affect the person you are or the friends you make. After analyzing this poem, I looked at the morals of the novel, Great Gatsby, in a different way; analyzing the moral of how Nick Carraway sees the rich and the poor, and how he differentiates both groups.

The poem, “A Mediocre Man,” by Robert Service connects to The Great Gatsby by many ways, one having the author or narrator of this poem relate to the character Nick Carraway from the Great Gatsby. Both characters display themselves to be the individual that is between the rich and the poor; the character that analyzes each move and action another decides to make to help them understand the differences between the rich and poor, and what characterizes from which. This connecetion from the poem to the novel illustrates a thematic connection by relating to morals of the book, and the main subject matters of both texts. Robert Service elucidates his points by including, “And through my morning paper view, the problems of the day.” He explains that the rich and poor bring conflicts or problems to society. This connects to the Great Gatsby by connecting to the event where Myrtle’s death takes place. “The relentless beating heat was beginning to confuse me and I had a bad moment there before I realized that so far his suspicions hadn’t alighted on Tom…-as if he just got some poor girl with child.” (Fitzgerald 124). Mixing the rich and the poor creates chaos, both bring problems if they do not know what they truly want, who they truly are, and if they do not believe if they are the best. The character Jay Gatsby doesn’t know who he truly is, and he doesn’t believe that he is better off with Daisy, this relates to the poem by the author signifying his point on being yourself, being proud of yourself, and not to strive to be someone else, and not to care for the rich. Jay Gatsby obviously cares for reputation, and his status with Daisy, emphasizing on the connection to what Robert Service advises to his audience. Both pieces make use of rheotic appeal by applying both stories to an audience and persuading the audience to profoundly think of what will happen next and generate thoughts of the differences and similiarities between the poor and the rich.

Annotations Group 1 Block B1

Katie, Marie, Jessa

Frank, Robert H. "ECONOMIC SCENE; When the Rich-Poor Gap Widens, 'Gatsby' Becomes a Guidebook." The New York Times. The New York Times, 31 Aug. 2006. Web. 01 Mar. 2013. <>.

               Frank highlights the academic ever-growing gap between America’s social classes with the help of research. Intended for an academic audience as well as your average working class, the article provides insight into the struggles of American’s trying to move up the social ladder and pinpoints the “Does money really bring happiness?” scenario.  Frank discusses the difference between doing something that you like and doing something for the money. The author argues that when working at a job you love, you are more likely to become an expert at what you do and would therefore make more money. He also argues, with evidence from researchers, that although income does essentially, at some level, make us happy, our happiness rises substantially with the number of close friends and acquaintances we obtain in our lifetime. Frank stated the riskier the job, the higher the pay. Some of the biggest pay checks go to those willing to perform morally questionable work. Furthermore, it is suggested that American’s reaching for material successes are more likely to be unhappy.  

                Frank’s article illuminates Fitzgerald’s central argument, that money doesn’t bring happiness, in The Great Gatsby. Although people are able to gain the amount of riches they hope for, they lose sight of what’s important and oftentimes have to do immoral jobs to get there. Gatsby, while having all the money he could ever hope for, had to lie and cheat to work his way up, getting into illegal business that could destroy him, but he realized that he could get Daisy no other way. In the end, however, he didn’t get her anyways and when he was murdered not even a handful of people showed up at his funeral because he never took the time to really make friends.  Thus, the crux of the story focuses on Gatsby’s struggled to become successful and be with the women he’s sought after for many years and the unhappiness loneliness he was left with in the end. Essentially it was Gatsby’s riches and lack of priorities that brought his death.

Katie, Marie,Jessa

Allen, Patricia. “Documents tell more about Fitzgerald’s first love.” Ginevra King was model for ‘Gatsby’ characters and others. (September 2003) Academic Research. 5 March 2013


Patricia Allen from Princeton has done research on the background of F. Scott Fitzgerald to reveal why he wrote the way he did. She shows us why his characters have the personality that they do. She says these ways because he was inspired by love. She says that Ginevra King may be a model for some Characters of The Great Gatsby. One character that may perfectly resemble his first love in this book is Daisy. As he would be Gatsby and Ginevra would be Daisy, they fall in love but never end up together. Both women end up marrying someone else.

Patricia had acquired many copies of letters and documents of the past that no longer exist. She has letters between Ginevra and F Scott Fitzgerald, claiming their love for each other at such young ages. The letters were of course rid of but researchers knew they existed. They later found typed copies of the letters between the two. The Princeton library holds these documents.

Annotations Group 2 Block B1

Scott, Ally, Danniel

Quirk, Tom. "Fitzgerald and Cather: The Great Gatsby." Thesis. University of Missouri-Columbia, n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2013. <>.

In this paper Quirk addresses the similarities between Cather's and Fitzgerald's works. Quirk also addresses the friendly letters and other more personal aspects of the two's lives. The paper itself is very credible as it is associated with a University (Missouri). Also when Googleing the paper's title one can find several papers that use this as a source. The paper itself also has many citations to other works further showing its trustworthiness. 

The paper starts off with a paragraph that seems to point out how Fitzgerald looks up to Cather based on his exuberance when receiving a letter from her. The paper goes on to state that certain passages in My Antonia and The Great Gatsby are eerily similar in many ways. As the paper continues Quirk discusses many other similarities in the two great authors' works. Along with these similarities Quirk also points out many causes for said connections. One of these reasons is Fitzgerald’s love for Cather’s books.

Ally, Scott, Daniel

Cugat, Francis. The Great Gatsby Cover. 1927. Princeton University Library, 

     Princeton. Celestial Eyes - from Metamorphosis to Masterpiece. Web. 4 Mar. 2013.


    The dust cover of The Great Gatsby that most people recognise, and that is on our 

     school books, is actually a reprinting nearly twenty years after the 

     original was replayed in a new edition. In most cases, a book is completed 

     before a dust cover is created, using a scene from the book, or a character 

     or theme that the author, publisher or artist found especially striking. 

     This particular cover, however, was created before The Great Gatsby was 

     finished, and "Fitzgerald maintained that he had 'written it into' his 

     book." The cover features a highly stylized face. Two heavily blacked eyes 

     look out over very red lips. The irises are replayed with miniature nudes. 

     Lines above and around the eyes and mouth suggest a hairline. Under the 

     left eye there is a single bright green tear. The background is a dark navy 

     blue. A bright cityscape is below the face, and a ferris wheel of lights 

     features in the center.

     The the eyes without a nose or a face to
     contain them is a motif that reoccurs several times in the novel. On the
     way from West Egg to the city, Nick passes Dr. T. J. Eckleburg's eyes-
     “blue and gigantic-their retinas are one yard high. They look out of
     no face, but, instead, from a pair of enormous yellow spectacles which pass
     over a nonexistent nose.” (Fitzgerald, 16). These eyes have no face, and
     the use of the yellow and blue in this picture can also be a connection to
     the cover. A second connection to the cover is that of the description of
     Daisy as the “girl whose disembodied face floated along the dark
     cornices and blinding signs” (Fitzgerald, 52). This seems to require even
     less connection to the cover than the disembodied eyes of Dr. T. J.
     Eckleburg. Either or both of these can be reasonably tied back to the
     cover, or the cover back to them. 

Annotations Group 2 Block B3

Jenny, Melanie, Mara, Hunter

Seelye, Katherine Q. "What Happens to the American Dream in a Recession?" New York Times Company, 7 May 2009. Web. 5 Mar. 2013.

In this article Seelye Discusses the American dream, a common theme in the book the Great Gatsby. This article was written in the midst of our recent recession. She discussed what happens to the American dream during a recession. Seeyle looks at the topic from an everyday Americans shoes. Her polls  have concluded that even with the countries current economic state being bad the American people still have faith in the American dream that one can start from nothing and if they work hard they can achieve the American dream. She found that most Americans believe that they have either already achieved the dream, or are confident that they will in their lifetime. In fact her study showed that a very low amount of Americans have given up on the American Dream and the hope it instills in the American people. This article shows that  no matter how tough times are, and how tight money is our country, and our people believe in bettering ourselves, in striving for more for our futures. Our country as a whole refuses to let an economic crisis stand in our way of the hope that things will one day get better.

   This article connects to the Great Gatsby in that Jay Gatsby strived for that American dream himself. He was James Gatz, a man from nothing, but when he met Cody and saw what wealth did for him James wanted that too. He changed his name to Jay Gatsby, and he decided then that he would achieve the American Dream, and he would become the man he wanted to be, the man Daisey wanted him to be. He didn't care what obstacles came in his way, he was on his way to his American Dream. Just like how now, during the recession the American people refuse to let the economic crisis get in the way of their American Dream, Gatsby refused to let anything or any one get in the way of him achieving his dream, no one was going to take the hope that the American dream gave him, the hope of Daisy. Hope, that's what the American Dream is, a hope that one day you will get out of the situation you are in and make something so much bigger than yourself in the future.

Annotations Group 1 Block B3


Kylie, Mariah, Kaitlyn

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. "City Dusk by F Scott Fitzgerald." All Poetry, n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2013.

“City Dusk” by F. Scott Fitzgerald, discusses the feelings and memories of the narrator as the sun begins to set. He realizes that as the night comes closer, he begins to feel more depressed. As he is sitting in the dusk in a park, he also thinks back to a time when his world was figuratively “lit”, and there was music and people. Something then draws him to a woman, with blonde hair, in his memories, but then as soon as the details come they all blur together. The person longs for a time when he was not in the city and his world was filled with lights and dancing and music, and the woman seems to symbolize it. The purpose of this poem may have been to express his feelings, and show the desire he had to be happy, because he knew firsthand what it was like. His audience may have been anyone in the city at the time, or to perhaps warn people of the city at night, and how one’s thoughts may come back to haunt you. Being alone at night may be a dangerous thing, because your thoughts can consume you and change what you think about your reality.

The Great Gatsby touches on how thoughts of your past may alter your present, like in this poem. The man sitting in the dark thinks of all the things that made him happy, especially this girl with blond hair. Gatsby constantly dotes on the past, thinking of all the things that could have made him happy. He falls in love with the idea of Daisy, and remembers how things used to be. The poem and the novel show that Fitzgerald may have been longing for times of happiness, like how they were in the past. Each of the characters in the respective literary works wish for something that they once had, even though it will never be the same again.

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

Annotated Bibliography



A bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, websites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called "references" or "works cited" depending on the style format you are using. A bibliography usually just includes the bibliographic information (i.e., the author, title, publisher, etc.).

An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation.

Therefore, an annotated bibliography includes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources. Depending on your project or the assignment, your annotations may do one or more of the following:

·         Summarize: Summarize the text using its rhetorical situation. Who is the author, what is its purpose? Who is the audience? What is the context/exigence? What are the main arguments? What is the point of this story or article? What topics are covered? If someone asked what this text is about, what would you say? This should be a paragraph in length.

·         Evaluate: After summarizing a source, it may be helpful to evaluate it. How does it illuminate to the novel you read? Identify and explain the significance of at least one connection. Connections can be rhetorical, poetic, thematic, historical, stylistic, political, and/or relate to your experiences. This should be one paragraph in length.



Click on "Edit" in the right hand corner to add text.

Write the first name of each group member. Place your name in bold.

Be sure to spell check.  There is a spell checker in this program or you can type in word first.


Greg, Marsha, Jan, Cindy


Cabera, Nolan L., and Amado M. Padilla. “Entering and Succeeding in the Culture of College: The Story of Two Mexican Heritage

         Students.” Hispanic Journal of BehavioralSciences 26.2 (May 2004): 152-169. Academic Search   Elite (Ebsco). Web.    

         7  February 2009.

         Cabera and Padilla discuss the academic resilience of two Stanford Latino students using

in-depth interviews. Intended for an academic audience from both higher education and social work, the article provides insight into the common struggles faced by many first-time college students who rely on emotional support of families and academic support from faculty and staff at institutions of higher education. Cabera and Padilla evaluate various services available to students at crucial points in a college career and the strategies that assist in the efforts for academic success. The authors argue that without intervention many first-time college students, regardless of race or gender, would fail to be successful. Furthermore, those students must adopt an expanded sense of self in order to see themselves as successful in a college setting.

            Cabera and Padilla’s study illuminates Sherman Alexie’s central argument, that students who are economically disadvantaged and from a culture other than the dominant culture must redefine themselves in order to succeed, in Diary. Although the students highlighted in the study receive support from friends and family within their identified cultural context, they are forced to redefine themselves as members of the dominant culture associated with their institution. Junior, while maintaining his identity on the reservation, adopts an expanded version of self when he enters Reardon. Thus, the crux of the story focuses on Junior’s ability to reconcile his two selves.

MLA Citations

Omaha Public Schools does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, disability, age, genetic information, citizenship status, or economic status in its programs, activities and employment and provides equal access to the Boy Scouts and other designated youth groups. The following individual has been designated to address inquiries regarding the non-discrimination policies: Superintendent of Schools, 3215 Cuming Street, Omaha, NE 68131 (531-299-9822).

Las Escuelas Públicas de Omaha no discriminan basados en la raza, color, origen nacional, religión, sexo, estado civil, orientación sexual, discapacidad , edad, información genética, estado de ciudadanía, o estado económico, en sus programas, actividades y empleo, y provee acceso equitativo a los “Boy Scouts” y a otros grupos juveniles designados. La siguiente persona ha sido designada para atender estas inquietudes referentes a las pólizas de no discriminación: El Superintendente de las Escuelas, 3215 Cuming Street, Omaha, NE 68131 (531-299-9822).